(1) Familiarity develops over a period of time; in both the guppy and the stickleback , it develops gradually over approximately 2 weeks.(2) In the open water, long spines help protect the stickleback from being swallowed by large predators.(3) The three-spine stickleback is a fish known for its tremendous variability in size, physiology, and behavior.(4) Examples include the red markings of salmon, stickleback , and guppies, in addition to many birds.(5) Cyprinids and sticklebacks are similar in body size but differ in their degree of body armor.(6) The diverse genes hypothesis is supported by a study of sticklebacks .(7) For example, individual male sticklebacks that are bolder toward predators are also better at obtaining breeding sites through territorial aggression.(8) In a certain new pond in Bergen, Norway, during the past century, sticklebacks evolved toward the lighter armor in just thirty-one years.(9) There are also rudd, bream, eels, gudgeon, crucian carp, tench, minnows, perch, sticklebacks , the odd trout, pike and barbel present.(10) Boxfishes and three-spine sticklebacks hover very well by oscillating their pectoral fins with large attack angles on both recovery and power strokes.(11) More than 250 people around the world are observing and documenting evolution, not only in finches and guppies, but also in aphids, flies, grayling, monkeyflowers, salmon, and sticklebacks .(12) The oil slick contaminated about three kilometres of waterway killing about 150 sticklebacks - small fish renowned for being tolerant to pollution - a seagull and a duck.(13) Further evidence that the several instances of beach spawning in fishes arose by different mechanisms comes from puffers and sticklebacks .(14) In the spring the water was filled with sticklebacks and frogspawn - enough to delight any youngster and he would catch them in a small net and take a few home in a glass jar.(15) Although most species of stickleback can adapt to salt, brackish, or fresh water, unarmored threespine sticklebacks appear to be limited to fresh water.(16) For example, in sticklebacks , a large fish distracts predator attention from the smaller ones, and an individual may decrease its risk of predation by locating close to a more preferred prey.
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